“Water is life”
Undoubtedly, this natural resource is essential for human survival and its economic and productive development.
Not only is essential to have access to the liquid, it is necessary to obtain water free of contaminants to reduce diseases and improve health.
According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene (JMP), at least 1800 million people around the world drink water that is not protected against the contamination with feces.
Polluted water and lack of sanitation hinder the eradication of diseases in the poorest countries of the world.
The United Nations World Water Development Report 2018, presents potential solutions based on nature to face the current challenges of wastewater management and mitigate the impact on the environment.
The study determined that contamination of aquifer sources caused by agriculture continues to be a critical problem throughout the world, including in developed countries.
Wastewater is that resulting from human activities and contains a large amount of polluting substances.
The classification depends on its origin and level of contamination.
Domestic and urban wastewater: Comes from domestic activities in residential areas, as a result of cleaning, scrubbing, cleaning, urine and fecal water.
These waters contain contaminants of organic matter and microorganisms.
Industrial wastewater: the result of the activities or chemical production process, textile, sugar, dairy, among others. Contain organic, thermal and chemical contaminants.
Agricultural and rainwater wastewater: generated by the flow of rainwater in agricultural and livestock areas. When water is not filtered, it flows superficially and drags pollutants such as oil, pesticides, fertilizers, metallic materials and animal excrements.
Wastewater treatment is a process used to reduce pollutants and convert them into a safe effluent for reuse with minimal impact on the environment.
The waters can be treated by physical, chemical, biological and electromagnetic processes.
The physical-chemical process depends on the characteristics of the impurities.
Among the treatments used sedimentation, and solids separation, flotation to remove fats and oils, neutralization to normalize the pH quality of water, precipitation with coagulants and ion exchange.
The biological treatment uses chemical reactions to eliminate the soluble impurities through aerobic systems and increase the oxygen content in the waters.
The anaerobic oxidation process is also used to convert organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide, through the help of bacteria that degrade solid waste.
Annually more than 1000 million tons of wastewater is dumped rivers, lakes, and oceans, causing irreversible damage to the environment.